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Cheap write my essay influence of advertising in consumer buying behavior Health advocates have focused on the prevalence of advertising for calorie-dense low-nutrient foods as a significant contributor to the obesity epidemic. This research tests the hypothesis that exposure to food advertising during television viewing may also contribute to obesity by triggering automatic snacking of available food. In Experiments 1a and 1b, elementary-school-aged children watched a cartoon excessive homework high school contained either food advertising or advertising for other products and received a snack while watching. In Experiment 2, adults watched a television program that included food advertising that promoted snacking and/or fun product benefits, food advertising that promoted nutrition benefits or no food advertising. The adults then tasted and evaluated a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods in an apparently separate experiment. Amount of snack foods consumed during and after advertising exposure. Children consumed 45% more when exposed to food advertising. Adults consumed more of both healthy and unhealthy snack foods following exposure to Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com food advertising compared to the other conditions. In both experiments, food advertising increased consumption of products not in the presented advertisements, and these effects were not related to reported hunger or other conscious influences. These experiments demonstrate the power of food advertising to prime automatic eating behaviors and thus influence far more than brand preference alone. According to the U.S. Surgeon General, “Obesity is the fastest growing cause of disease and death in America” (Carmona, 2003). And the crisis is not unique to the U.S.; according to the World Health Organization (2003), the obesity epidemic is “a major contributor to the global burden of chronic disease and disability”. The trend is especially disturbing among young people. Over the past 30 years, the percentage of children and adolescents in the U.S. who are overweight or at risk of becoming overweight has more than tripled to 37% and 34%, respectively (Ogden, et al., Guelph Public Library obesity crisis has been fueled by reductions in physical activity, as well as overconsumption of foods high in fat and sugar (Institute of Medicine (IOM), 2006). Health authorities believe that the accumulation of unhealthy messages communicated to children through food advertising sabrina.yang cs thesis university of waterloo a leading cause of unhealthy consumption (Brownell & Horgen, SafeAssign Non-existent paper 100% plagiarism match - News IOM, 2006). Every day, children view, on average, 15 television food advertisements (Federal Trade Commission, 2007), and an overwhelming 98% of these ads promote products high in fat, sugar, and/or sodium (Powell, Szczpka, Chaloupka, & Braunschweig, 2007). Moreover, food advertising to children portrays unhealthy eating behaviors with positive outcomes. Snacking at non-meal times occurred in 58% of food ads during children’s programming (Harrison & Marske, 2005). In addition Resident Evil 4 Assignment Ada FAQ - neoseeker.com good taste, the most common product benefits communicated include fun, happiness and being “cool” (Folta, Goldberg, Economos, Bell, & Meltzer, 2006; Harrison & Marske, 2005). A number of reviews have examined the research on advertising to children and conclude that food advertising leads to greater preferences and Students Writing: Who am i essays FREE Bibliography! of the products advertised (Hastings et al., 2003; IOM, 2006; Story & French, 2004). Kids movie ratings for parents addition, as assessed through correlational and quasi-experimental studies, heavier media viewing often predicts more Homework Help Linking Verbs - buywritewritingessay.com diets and higher body weight among children (see IOM, 2006). A few studies have also examined effects of food advertising on actual eating behaviors, usually assessed by food choices following exposure to advertising (see Hastings et al., 2003; IOM, 2006). One study with high ecological validity exposed children at an overnight camp to a daily cartoon with candy or fruit advertising, PSAs, or no ads (Gorn & Goldberg, 1982). Over a 2-week period, children who saw the candy ads selected fruit and orange juice as a snack less often than the other children. The literature reviews also highlight, however, the need for further research -- specifically, more studies that establish a direct causal link between food advertising and unhealthy diets. To begin to address this need, Halford and colleagues recently demonstrated that groups of children eat more immediately after viewing a series of 8–10 children’s food commercials than after watching commercials for other products (Halford, Boyland, Hughes, Oliveira, & Dovey, 2007; Halford et al., 2008; Halford, Gillespie, Brown, Pontin, & Dovey, 2004). Additionally, these effects occurred at the category level, (i.e., increased consumption transferred to foods not included in the presented advertisements). However, the authors did not obtain support for their proposed mechanism: specifically, that overweight children have greater recognition memory for food advertisements, which in turn leads to greater consumption. The literature reviews also emphasize the need to extend food advertising research beyond children; to-date, very little is known about such effects on adolescents and adults. Finally, the quadratic formula algebra 2 with trigonometry homework research has examined advertising for calorie-dense, low-nutrient foods. As a result, we know very little about how advertising for more nutritious food affects eating behaviors. The present research addresses these gaps in our knowledge and utilizes a new approach to study food advertising effects using contemporary social-cognitive theories. Social-cognitive theories suggest a subtle and potentially far-reaching effect of food advertising on eating behaviors that may occur outside of participants’ intention or awareness (i.e., unconsciously; see Bargh & Morsella, 2008). Priming methods provide a means to test for these automatic causal effects. In priming studies, relevant mental representations are activated in a subtle, unobtrusive manner in one phase of an experiment, and then, the unconscious, unintended effects of this activation are assessed in a subsequent phase (see Bargh & Chartrand, 2000). Priming research has already demonstrated that a variety of complex social and physical behaviors – such as aggression, loyalty, rudeness, and walking speed – can be activated by relevant external stimuli (i.e., the primes) without the person’s intent to behave that way or awareness of the dissertation survey questions (see Dijksterhuis, Chartrand, & Aarts, 2007). The mechanism through which behavior priming operates appears to be an overlap or strong association between representations activated by the perception of a given type of behavior, and those used to enact that type of behavior oneself (Dijksterhuis & Bargh, 2001) – the same mechanism that creates tendencies toward imitation and mimicry in adults (Bargh, 2005; Chartrand & Bargh, 1999) and which serves as a vital support for vicarious learning in young children (Tomasello, Call, Behne, & Moll, 2005). An important real-life source of priming influences is the media, including television programs and advertisements. Exposure to aggressive or alcohol-consuming models in media can prime aggressive behaviors and alcohol consumption in the viewer (see Anderson & Bushman, 2002; Roehrich Pay For Homework Essay - buywritingtopessay.photography Goldman, 1995). Studies that have focused specifically on advertising effects have shown that ads can prime positive expectancies of the effects of alcohol consumption (Dunn & Yniguez, 1999) and positive attitudes towards smoking (Pechman & Knight, Homework power buy super sale | Telugu Association of Maine among adults confirms that external cues have a significant influence on food consumption behaviors. Exposure to the sensory properties of palatable Religious Studies Tutor Online - On-Demand Homework Help increased subjective desire and consumption, even though participants were already fully sated (Cornell, Rodin & Weingarten, 1989). Subsequent studies confirmed and extended this finding, showing that exposure to sensory-related food cues increases consumption (Federoff, Polivy & Herman, 1997; Jansen & van den Hout, 1991; Rogers & Hill, 1989). Moreover, food advertising typically focuses on the immediate sensory gratifications of consumption (i.e., the ‘hot’, appetitive features), making resistance to these messages even more difficult (i.e., the ‘cold’, rational process of self-restraint; Loewenstein, 1996; Metcalfe & Mischel, 1999). In light of these findings, Lowe and Butryn (2007) proposed that palatable food stimuli can trigger hedonic hungeror “thoughts, feelings and urges about food in the absence of energy deficits”. Consumption behaviors can also be activated through automatic processes. External cues, not related to the sensory qualities of food, (e.g., container size and shape, food variety, and portion size) affect amount consumed without the consumer’s knowledge (Wansink, 2006). The behavior of other people is another important external behavioral cue, and people automatically mimic others’ eating behaviors, including food choice and amount of food consumed, without realizing they are doing so (Johnston, 2002; Tanner, Ferraro, Chartrand, Bettman & van Baaren, in press). The unconscious nature of these influences is further established by studies in which primes of thirst-related words or smiling faces, presented subliminally, outside of the participant’s conscious awareness, increased beverage consumption among thirsty individuals (Strahan, Spencer & Zanna, 2002; Winkielman, Berridge, & Wilbarger, 2005). Advertising for food and beverages communicates potentially powerful food consumption Traditional Publishing Agreement - Inside Mines, including images of attractive models eating, snacking at non-meal times, and positive emotions linked to food consumption (Folta et al., 2006; Harrison & Marske, 2005). We propose that the messages presented in television food advertising similarly have the power to act as real-world primes and lead to corresponding eating behaviors. Given the types of foods and consumption benefits typically promoted in food advertising, what is primed is usually snacking on unhealthy foods and beverages (Harrison & Marske, 2005; Powell, Szczpka, Chaloupka & Braunschweig, 2007). In the following studies, we experimentally test whether television food advertising, embedded as it would naturally occur within a television program, will prime, or directly activate, an automatic increase in snack food consumption. Because these effects are hypothesized to occur outside of conscious awareness, the intention or ability to regulate impulsive tendencies Dissertation help book - homeopathy360.com not affect the outcome. Therefore, we predict that food advertising that conveys snacking and fun (i.e., those typically shown during children’s programming) will automatically cue eating behavior among adults as well as children. In addition, in line with the Help With Write A Dissertation 1 Week - Help With Write A et al. (2004, 2007, 2008) findings, we predict that the advertising will affect consumption of any available foods, not only those that were advertised. We designed the studies to replicate conditions in which individuals are typically exposed to food advertising on television, as well as to minimize participant awareness that the experiments involved advertising (versus television viewing, in general). All advertisements were embedded within a television program during naturally-occurring commercial breaks, and the total number of food advertisements was consistent Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com the number typically presented during a similar amount of programming time. Experiments 1a and 1b utilized common types of children’s food advertisements as stimuli and measured effects on snack food consumed by children while watching television. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of both snack- and nutrition-focused food advertising on adult consumption of a range of healthy to unhealthy snack foods. To further minimize awareness of the true purpose of the experiments, the advertisements The Introduction of The Essay not related to the brands or types of foods to be consumed by participants. In Experiment 1a, we tested our primary hypothesis that elementary-school-aged children would consume significantly more snack food while watching a cartoon that included food advertising. In Experiment 1b, we recruited children from a more ethnically and socioeconomically diverse school district and added a participant incentive ($20 gift card). Except where noted, recruiting and experimental procedures were identical Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com Experiments 1a and 1b. In both experiments, children were randomly assigned to watch a cartoon that included either food advertising or other types of advertising and were how to write the personal statement a snack while watching. Children watched alone to eliminate potential imitation, social facilitation or self-presentation effects. Parents also completed a short questionnaire with information about their child. In total, 118 children participated: 55 in Experiment 1a and 63 in Experiment 1b; 56 girls and 62 boys; and 59 children each in the food and non-food advertising conditions. The two conditions did not differ significantly on any of the child characteristics measured, including age, weight status and ethnicity (all p s ≥.16). We received complete data for 108 participants; 92% of parents returned the questionnaire. Children’s ages ranged from 7 to 11 years ( M = 8.8 years). To determine children’s weight status, we utilized height and weight Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com provided by parents and compared children’s body mass index (BMI) to age- and sex-normed percentiles published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC, 2007). As recommended by the CDC, children with BMI’s below the 5 th percentile were classified as “underweight”, those in the 85 th Proposal And Dissertation Help Accounting Finance th percentiles were classified as “at risk of overweight”, and those in the 95 th or higher percentiles were classified as “overweight”. Under these criteria, 3% of our participants were underweight ( n = 3), 62% were normal weight ( n = 66), 21% were at risk of overweight ( n = 23), and 14% were overweight ( n = 15). There was no significant difference in children’s weight status between Experiments 1a and 1b, χ 2 (3, N = 107) = 4.52, p =.21; and the combined rate of at-risk and overweight children (35%) was comparable to the 37% incidence for children in the U.S. (Ogden, et al., 2006). We also obtained children’s combined race/ethnicity and prior-week television viewing from parents. Participants in Experiment 1a were primarily white, non-Hispanic (95%), whereas our sample in Experiment 1b was ethnically diverse: 61% were white, non-Hispanic ( n = 39), 20% black, non-Hispanic ( n = 13), 10% Hispanic ( n = 6), 6% Asian ( n = 4) and 2% other or mixed ethnicity ( n = 1). According to their parents’ report, children in Experiment Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com watched very little television ( M = Writing Essay: Buy essays online yahoo answers top hours per day). Parents in Experiment 1b reported significantly higher child television viewing ( M = 2.0 hours-per-day), t (107) = 4.77, p 2 (1, N = 107) = 25.95, p. As predicted, children who saw the cartoon with food advertising ate considerably more (45%) goldfish crackers while Discuss Your Essay ( M = 28.5 gr.) than did children who saw non-food advertising ( M = 19.7 gr.), t (116) = 3.19, p =.01, d =.60. Importantly, most child characteristics did not predict or moderate consumption (see Table 1 ). ANOVAs were conducted with advertising condition and child categories, including weight status, gender, television in the child’s bedroom, and white, non-Hispanic versus ethnic minority, as between-participants factors. All models showed a main effect of advertising condition (all F (1,105) Scientific Research Papers 7.03, p. Planned comparisons of the two types of food ads to each other and the control confirmed that participants who viewed the snack ads consumed significantly more than those who viewed the nutrition ads, F (1,49) = 8.57, p 2 =.15, and the difference in consumption between snack ads and the control approached conventional significance, F (1,51) = 3.24, p =.08, η 2 =.06. The difference between nutrition ads and the control was not significant ( p =.30). As predicted, there was a trend for restrained eaters to eat more overall than unrestrained eaters ( M =.31 vs. −.01), F (1,78) = 3.34, p =.07, personal statement for leadership program 2 =.04. Men also ate considerably more than women ( M =.50 vs. −.20), F (1,78) = 15.05, p 2 =.16. The Advertising x Restrained Eating interaction approached significance, F (2,78) = 2.75, p =.07, η 2 =.07, and the Advertising x Gender interaction was reliable, F (2,78) = 3.25, p =.04, η Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com =.08 (see Figure 1 canadian essay writing service. The snack advertising had powerful effects on men and restrained eaters; with both groups consuming approximately 1 SD more after exposure to snack ads versus nutrition ads or no food ads. Female unrestrained eaters, however, ate similar amounts across kansas state university international admissions conditions. Interaction effects between advertising message and eating restraint and gender on total food consumed. We then examined whether the effects of advertising on consumption behavior were mediated by hunger or mood. ANOVAs to predict change in hunger and mood (before and after viewing) showed no main effects of advertising ( p s ≥.58), or interaction effects on change in mood ( p s ≥.50). The 2-way interactions between advertising and both gender and restrained eating on change in hunger were significant ( F (2,78) = 3.68, p =.03, η 2 =.09; F (2,78) = 2.86, p =.06, η 2 =.06), but these effects were opposite those found for consumption behaviors. Restrained eaters and men reported feeling less hungry after viewing snack advertising ( We write college essays = −.41 and −.44) and more hungry after viewing nutrition advertising ( M =.44 and .54), indicating a complete dissociation between reported hunger and eating behaviors. We also examined potential predictors and moderators of total consumption, including hunger and mood at the time participants arrived at the experiment (time 1) and after they had watched the television program (time 2), as well as the number of commercials recalled (awareness). Again, ANCOVAs to predict total consumption using expository introduction paragraph examples, mood and awareness variables as covariates showed Help with gcse french coursework - group.mhalmanagroup.com significant relationship to amount consumed (all Copyright Permission Instructions and Sample Letter s ≥.20). Only one interaction between these potential moderator variables and advertising condition approached significance: advertising and hunger at time 2, F (2,78) = 2.61, p =.08, η 2 =.06, (all other p s ≥.16). Further analyses revealed that hunger immediately prior Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com eating, was related to amount consumed only for participants who had viewed nutrition advertising ( r =.57, p 2 =.10, and multi-grain chip consumption, F (2,76) = 11.46, p 2 =.23. In all cases, however, the term paper contents of influence was the same. Participants who saw snack commercials ate the most of every food, regardless of healthiness, and those who saw nutrition commercials ate the least (see Figure 2 ). Main effects of advertising message on amount consumed for individual foods (controlling for taste ratings) Experiment 2 demonstrates that adults are also susceptible to the automatic effects of food advertising on consumption behavior. 1 These effects were extremely powerful for men and restrained eaters. We also demonstrated that the influence of the snack ads continued after exposure (such that they carried over to the subsequent ‘second experiment’), and that participants were not aware critical thinking in nursing they were affected. In addition, as in the children’s experiments, advertising effects could not be accounted for by participants’ hunger, and the effects transferred to products that were not advertised during the television segments viewed by the participants. Snack advertising also increased consumption of healthier snack options, including vegetables, further supporting the automatic nature of the advertising effects. In contrast, food advertising with a nutrition message appeared to inhibit automatic consumption, as evidenced by the relationship between hunger and consumption only for writing workshop compare contrast essay quizlet in the nutrition advertising condition. Nutrition-focused apa narrative essay did not, however, affect the healthiness of food consumed. These experiments provide psychology paper writing service evidence of an automatic, direct causal link between food advertising example of cover letter for research paper greater snack consumption, and further contradict industry claims that advertising affects only brand preferences and not overall nutrition (Young, 2003). Overall, the findings were highly consistent. In both studies, and across diverse populations, food advertising that promoted snacking, fun, happiness and excitement (i.e., the majority of children’s food advertisements) directly contributed to increased food intake. In addition, as previously found by Halford et al. (2004, 2007, 2008), similarity between the foods provided and those advertised was not required. Finally, these effects occurred regardless of participants’ initial hunger, and amount consumed after viewing snack advertising was completely dissociated with adult participants’ reported hunger. The potential health consequences of these naturally-occurring advertising priming effects on overall diet and attempts to control unhealthy eating are far-reaching. Children may be most consistently affected, yet snack advertising also increased adult consumption, especially for men and those attempting to diet. In addition, the effects persisted after the viewing session. Therefore it may not be possible for one to avoid influence simply by not snacking while watching television; television viewing could also lead to increased consumption during a subsequent snack or meal. One limitation of our findings (as with most laboratory experiments) is that real-world exposure to advertising stimuli occurs in a wide variety of contexts, and we cannot be certain that other situational factors (e.g., viewing with others, viewing at other times of the day, or viewing for other purposes) would not have moderated the advertising effects. To optimize both external and internal validity, however, we imitated natural television-viewing conditions, as closely Students Papers: Essay online shopping store shopping FREE possible, within a controlled setting. We feel confident, therefore, that the increased snacking was due to the advertising, and that these effects do occur during real-world viewing. Although our findings Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com consistent with a number of potential priming mechanisms, the specific mechanisms through which food advertising increased automatic eating behavior cannot be identified with certainty. As many potential intervening variables did not moderate the advertising-eating effects, much of the effect probably occurred directly Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com perceiving the eating behavior of people in the ads and/or activating concepts harvard business journal subscription with consumption (e.g., Dijksterhuis & Bargh, 2001). A motivational explanation is also quite viable (Bargh, Gollwitzer, Lee-Chai, Barndollar, & Troetschel, 2001; Shah & Kruglanski, 2002). Snack advertising may have primed a short-term hedonic, enjoyment goal, whereas nutrition advertising primed a long-term goal of healthy eating, leading to corresponding behaviors. In reality, the power of advertising may be its ability to prime behaviors through multiple mechanisms at the same time. Another limitation of our findings is that we cannot pinpoint the specific advertising features that affected eating behaviors. To increase the ecological validity of the findings, we utilized actual advertising stimuli. As a result, the stimuli may have conflated the Homework help synonyms, Homework help antonyms Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com in the ads (i.e., snacking, fun and excitement vs. nutrition) with positive associations toward the types of foods typically promoted in ads with those messages (i.e., nutrient-poor foods vs. “healthier” options). Our findings suggest, however, that the effect of Geology Paper Writing | Pro-Papers.com product benefits was more powerful than the effect of priming specific types of foods: The snack ads increased consumption of all foods, including the healthier options, and the nutrition message did not increase consumption of the healthier foods (in fact, consumption of all foods was lowest in this condition). Further research is required to confirm that priming snacking versus nutrition benefits, and not other features of the advertisements, including specific types of foods or brands, triggered the effects on consumption behaviors. In addition, the messages used to frame food consumption in advertising are also likely to create powerful effects on consumption, and these could be profitably examined in future research. Further understanding of the mechanisms that produced these priming effects is also needed to enable educators and parents to more effectively protect children (and themselves) against unhealthy food Homework Writing Services - EssayVikings influence. Wilson and Brekke (1994) proposed that defense against unconscious “mental contamination” requires awareness and understanding of how unwanted external influences might affect us, as well as the motivation and ability to defend against influence. As most adults in our study did not recognize the potential influence of food advertising on their eating behaviors, increased awareness will be an important first step. These findings also highlight the need for media literacy programs that go beyond teaching children how to analyze and evaluate advertising messages, and increase the public’s understanding of how advertising may affect them outside of their awareness (Livingstone & Helsper, 2006). Additional studies could also examine contexts that might affect motivation and ability to defend against food advertising priming effects. According to Baumeister and colleagues, self-regulatory resources are limited and can become depleted and unavailable for subsequent self-regulatory tasks (Muraven & Baumeister, 2000). Food advertising effects could be especially pronounced, therefore, in the evening ‘prime-time’ hours when most adult television viewing occurs, following a day of self-control efforts. Perhaps, under such ego-depletion or cognitive load conditions, snack advertising might also affect female unrestrained eaters. Additional studies could also examine whether advertising that utilizes Coolessay.net - Buy Essay Online Now consumption messages (e.g., satisfaction or indulgence), would differentially affect motivations to consume. Another important direction for future research will be to examine the priming effects of other forms Transformational Leadership in Education: A Review of food advertising. Increasingly, food companies are replacing television advertising with more subtle marketing strategies (Chester & Montgomery, 2007). Future studies could examine whether consumption behaviors modeled during television programming and movies (through product placements) or interactive websites involving food products also prime automatic consumption behaviors. Other priming studies suggest help on english essay even exposure to less overt food cues, (e.g., brand logos that appear on signs or websites), I Always Do My Homework Late - buyworkonlineessay.org affect food consumption (e.g., Strahan et al., 2002; Winkielman et al., 2005). In expected findings research proposal, our results demonstrate that television food advertising increases snack consumption and may contribute unit 5 homework 2 solving systems by substitution the obesity epidemic, and that efforts to reduce unhealthy food advertising to children are urgently needed. In addition, they highlight the need to increase awareness of the potential automatic effects of food advertising on eating behavior. Current industry efforts to self-regulate television food advertising to youth are limited to children 12 years and under (Council of Better Business Bureaus, 2006), but the present findings suggest that reduced exposure to unhealthy food advertising would be beneficial for all age groups. This research was funded in part by Grant Does Homework Improve Academic Achievement? | Duke Today from the National Institute for Mental Health to JAB, and ms project resources the Yale Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. We thank Geoffrey Cohen, Becca Levy and Marlene Schwartz for their helpful comments and suggestions. 1 Although we did not obtain food advertising awareness in the first experiments, we assume that children would be, if anything, less aware than adults that food advertising might affect their consumption behaviors.