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Buy essay essay writers websites cheap assessment of the arguments and evidence which suggest women commit much less crime than men Both authors conceptualized and designed the analysis and wrote and edited the article. Four article critique example frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings in the United States: (1) that mental illness causes gun violence, (2) that psychiatric diagnosis can predict gun crime, (3) that shootings represent the deranged acts of mentally ill loners, and (4) that gun control “won’t prevent” another Newtown (Connecticut school mass shooting). Each of these statements is certainly true in particular communications proposal sample. Yet, as we show, notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings research paper about hotel and restaurant management reflect San Bruno, CA cultural stereotypes and anxieties about matters such as race/ethnicity, social class, and politics. These issues become obscured when mass shootings come to Policy Memorandum - USCIS in for all gun crime, and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. In the United States, popular and political discourse frequently focuses on the causal impact of mental illness in the aftermath of mass shootings. For instance, the US media diagnosed shooter Adam Lanza with schizophrenia in the days following the tragic school shooting at Sandy Hook elementary school in Newtown, Connecticut, in December 2012. “Was Adam Lanza an undiagnosed schizophrenic?” asked Psychology Today .1 “Lanza’s acts of slaughter. . strongly suggest undiagnosed schizophrenia” added the New York Times .2 Conservative commentator Anne Coulter provocatively proclaimed that “Guns don’t kill people—the mentally ill do.”3. Similar printable manuscript paper for preschool permeated political responses to Newtown as well. In a contentious press conference, National Rifle Association President Wayne LaPierre blamed “delusional killers” for violence in the United States, while calling for a “national registry” of persons with mental illness.4 Meanwhile, in the months after the shooting, a number of states passed bills To Da Duh In Memoriam Homework Help - buyworkwriteessay.org required making a difference in the community essay health professionals to report “dangerous patients” to local officials, who would then be authorized to confiscate any firearms that these persons might own. “People who have mental health issues should not have guns,” New York Governor Andrew Cuomo told reporters after one such bill passed the New York Senate. “They could hurt themselves, they could hurt other people.”5. Such associations make sense on many levels. Crimes such as Newtown—where Lanza killed 20 children and 6 adults with a military-grade semiautomatic weapon—appear to fall outside the bounds of sanity: who but an insane person would do such horrifying things? And, of course, scripts linking guns and mental illness arise in the aftermath of many US mass to kill a mockingbird comparative essay in no small part because of the psychiatric histories of the assailants. Reports suggest that up to 60% of perpetrators of mass shootings in the United States since 1970 displayed symptoms including acute paranoia, delusions, and depression before committing their crimes.6,7 Aurora, Colorado, movie ieee research papers on data mining pdf shooter James Holmes “was seeing a psychiatrist specializing in schizophrenia” before he opened fire in a crowded theater.8 Classmates felt unsafe around Jared Loughner because he would “laugh randomly and loudly at nonevents” in the weeks before he shot Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org Congresswoman Gabrielle Giffords and 6 other people at a homework help with plural nouns in front of a supermarket in Tucson, Arizona.9 Lanza “struggled with basic emotions” as a child rwth aachen university wrote a story “in which an old woman with a gun in her cane kills wantonly.”10 Isla Vista, California, shooter Elliot Rodger suffered from Asperger’s Home - Big Time Thinking and citation thesis site http owl.english.purdue.edu psychotropic medications.11. It is undeniable that persons who have shown violent tendencies should not have access to weapons that could be used to harm themselves or others. However, notions that mental illness caused any particular shooting, or that advance psychiatric attention might prevent these crimes, are more complicated than they often seem. We accessed key literatures from fields including psychiatry, psychology, public health, and sociology that address connections between mental illness and gun violence. We obtained articles through comprehensive searches DNA Methylation | What is Epigenetics? online English-language psychiatric, public health, social science, and popular media databases including PsychINFO, PsychiatryOnline, PubMed, SCOPUS, and LexisNexis. Search terms included keyword combinations of terms such as guns or firearms with terms such as mental illness or schizophrenia, with a time frame of 1980 through 2014. We also conducted manual online searches for specific authors, organizations, and news outlets that produced relevant research on these topics. (Though not peer-reviewed, Help me with my philosophy paper – The Friary School journalism and online archives proved important secondary sources that often functioned outside regulations limiting firearms how to write a thesis statement history paper Finally, we accessed our own 5 Paragraph Order Essay - buywritefastessay.com source historical research on race/ethnicity, violence, and mental illness,14 and US gun culture.15–17. From this review we critically addressed 4 central Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org case study projects frequently arise in the aftermath of mass shootings: Each of these Case Study Houses Program: Best Case Study Houses Built is certainly true in particular instances. Evidence strongly suggests that mass shooters are often mentally ill and socially marginalized. Enhanced psychiatric attention may well prevent particular crimes. And, to be sure, mass shootings often shed light on the need for more investment in mental health support networks or improved state laws and procedures regarding gun access.18. At the same time, the literatures we surveyed suggest that these seemingly self-evident assumptions about mass shootings are replete with problematic assumptions, particularly when read against current and historical literatures that address guns, violence, and mental illness more broadly. On the aggregate level, the notion that mental illness causes gun Essay Plan Help - buyworktopessay.org stereotypes a vast and diverse population of persons diagnosed with psychiatric conditions and oversimplifies links between violence and mental illness. Notions of mental illness that emerge in relation to mass shootings frequently reflect larger cultural issues that become obscured when mass shootings come to stand in for all gun crime and when “mentally ill” ceases to be a medical designation and becomes a sign of violent threat. Anxieties about insanity and gun violence are also Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org with oft-unspoken anxieties about race, politics, and the unequal distribution of violence in US society. In the current political landscape, these tensions play out most clearly in the discourse surrounding controversial “stand-your-ground” laws. “It’s not about stand your ground,” read a headline on cnn.com, “it’s about race.”19 Our analysis Research Paper On Human Service - buyworkgetessay.org that similar, if less overt historical tensions suffuse discourses linking guns and mental illness in ways that subtly Comparing Fountain Pen Friendly Papers - Fountain Pen Love “insane” gun crimes with oft-unspoken assumptions about “White” american dragon jake long rotwoods thesis or “Black” communal aggression. Again, it is review of related literature research paper example that US policymakers, journalists, and the general public look to psychiatry, psychology, neuroscience, and related disciplines as sources of certainty in the face of the often-incomprehensible terror and loss that mass shootings inevitably produce. This is especially the case in the current political moment, when relationships between shootings and mental illness often appear to be the only points upon which otherwise divergent voices in the contentious national gun debate agree. Our brief review ultimately suggests, however, that this framework—and its implicit promise of mental health solutions to ostensibly mental health problems—creates mastering chemistry assignment answers untenable situation in which Array assignment in Perl - Stack Overflow health practitioners increasingly become the persons most empowered to make decisions about gun ownership and most liable for failures to predict gun violence. Meanwhile, public, legal, and medical discourses move ever-farther away20 from talking broadly and productively about the social, structural, and, indeed, psychological implications of gun violence in the United States. The focus on mental illness in the wake of recent mass shootings reflects Evaluating a College Writing Sample RUBRIC decades-long history of more general debates in psychiatry and law about guns, gun violence, and “mental competence.” Psychiatric articles in the 1960s deliberated ways to assess whether mental Dissertation - Medical Dictionary were “of sound mind enough” to possess firearms.21 Following the 1999 mass shooting at Columbine High School, Breggin decried the toxic combination of mental illness, guns, and psychotropic medications that contributed to the actions of shooter Eric Harris.22 After the 2012 shooting at Newtown, Torrey amplified his earlier warnings about dangerous “subgroups” of persons with mental illness who, he contended, were perpetrators of gun crimes. Speaking to a national television audience, Torrey, a psychiatrist, claimed that “about half of. . mass killings are being done by people with severe mental illness, mostly schizophrenia, and if they were being treated they would have been preventable.”23 Similar themes appear University Printing Service - Staff Services - ANU legal dialogues as well. Even the US Supreme Court, which in Industrial Engineering - College Homework Help and Online strongly affirmed a broad right to bear arms, endorsed prohibitions on gun ownership “by felons and the mentally ill” because of their special potential for violence.24. Yet surprisingly little population-level evidence supports the notion that individuals diagnosed with mental illness are more likely than anyone else to commit gun crimes. According to Appelbaum,25 less than 3% to 5% of US crimes involve people with mental illness, and the percentages of crimes that involve guns are lower than the national average for Creative writing courses - open.edu.au not diagnosed with mental illness. Databases that track gun homicides, such as the National Center Why Case Studies Are Great Marketing Tools - getspokal.com Health Statistics, similarly show that fewer than 5% of the 120 000 gun-related killings in the United States between 2001 and 2010 were perpetrated by people diagnosed with mental illness.26. Meanwhile, a growing body of research suggests that mass shootings represent anecdotal distortions of, rather than representations of, the actions of “mentally ill” people as an aggregate group. By most estimates, there were fewer than 200 mass shootings reported in the United States—often defined as crimes in which four or more people are shot in an event, or related series of events—between 1982 and 2012.27,28 Recent reports suggest that 160 of these events occurred after the year 200029 and that mass shootings rose particularly in 2013 and 2014.28 As purchase intention scale and sociologists of medicine have noted, the time since the early 1980s also marked a consistent broadening of diagnostic categories and an expanding number of persons classifiable as “mentally ill.”30 Scholars who study violence prevention thus contend that mass shootings how to write for magazines far Its Successors And/Or Assigns - TheFreeDictionary infrequently to allow for the statistical modeling and predictability—factors that lie at the heart of effective public health interventions. Swanson argues that mass shootings denote “rare acts of violence”31 that have little predictive or preventive validity in relation to the bigger picture of the 32 000 fatalities and 74 000 injuries caused on average by gun violence and gun suicide each year in the United States.32. Links between mental illness and other types of violence are similarly contentious among researchers who study such trends. Several studies33–35 suggest that subgroups of persons with severe or untreated mental illness might be at increased risk for violence in periods surrounding psychotic rutgers application essay topics or psychiatric hospitalizations. Writing in the American Journal of PsychiatryKeers et al. found that the emergence of “persecutory delusions” partially explained associations between untreated schizophrenia and violence.36 At the same time, a number of seminal studies asserting links between violence and mental illness—including a 1990 study by Swanson et al.37 cited as fact by the New York Times in 201338—have been critiqued for overstating connections between serious mental illness and violent acts.39. Media reports often assume a binary distinction between mild and severe mental illness, and connect the latter form to unpredictability and lack of self-control. However, this distinction, too, is called into question by mental health research. To be sure, a number of the most common psychiatric diagnoses, including depressive, anxiety, and attention-deficit disorders, have no correlation with violence whatsoever.18 Community studies find that serious mental illness without substance abuse is also “statistically unrelated” to ASSIGNMENT AND ASSUMPTION AGREEMENT & GUIDE violence.40 At the aggregate level, the vast majority of people diagnosed with psychiatric disorders do not commit violent acts—only about 4% of violence in the United States can be attributed to people diagnosed with mental illness.41,42. A number of studies also suggest that stereotypes of “violent madmen” invert on-the-ground realities. Nestor theorizes that serious mental illnesses such as schizophrenia actually reduce the risk of violence over time, as the illnesses are in many cases marked by social isolation and withdrawal.43 Brekke et al. illustrate that the risk is exponentially greater that individuals diagnosed with serious mental illness will be assaulted by others, rather College Scholarship Essay Prompts the other way around. Their extensive surveys of police incident reports demonstrate that, far from posing threats to others, people diagnosed with schizophrenia have victimization rates Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org to 130% higher than those of the general public.44 Similarly, a meta-analysis by Choe et al. of published studies comparing perpetuation of violence with violent victimization by and against persons with mental illness concludes that “victimization is a greater public health concern than perpetration.”33 (p153) Media reports sound similar writing conclusions for essays a 2013 investigation by the Portland Press Herald found that “at least half” of persons shot and killed by police in Maine suffered from diagnosable mental illness.45–48. This is not to suggest that researchers know nothing about predictive factors for gun violence. However, credible studies suggest that a number of risk factors more strongly correlate with gun violence than mental illness alone. For instance, alcohol and drug use increase the risk of violent crime by as much as 7-fold, even among persons with no history of mental illness—a concerning statistic in the face of recent legislation that allows persons in certain US states to bring loaded Formatting: Theses & Dissertations: The University into bars and nightclubs.49,50 According to Van Dorn et al., a history of childhood abuse, binge drinking, and male gender are all predictive risk factors for serious violence.51. A number of studies suggest that laws and policies that enable firearm access during emotionally charged moments also seem to correlate with gun violence Dissertation Doctoral Writing - buywriteenglishessay.com strongly than does mental illness alone. Belying Lott’s argument that Student Questions - disney branding dissertation .olease guns” lead to “less crime,”52 Miller et al. found that homicide was more common in areas where household firearms ownership was higher.53 Siegel et al. found that states with high rates of gun ownership had disproportionately high numbers of deaths from firearm-related homicides.54 Webster’s analysis uncovered that the repeal of Missouri’s background check law led to an additional 49 to 68 murders per year,55 and the rate of interpersonal conflicts resolved by fatal shootings jumped by 200% after Florida passed “stand your ground” review of related literature research paper example 2005.56 Availability of guns is also considered a more predictive factor than is psychiatric diagnosis in many of the 19 000 US completed gun suicides each year.11,57,58 (By comparison, gun-related homicides and suicides fell precipitously, and precalculus math worksheets dropped to zero, when the Australian government passed Summer Holiday Homework Help - Get Your Summer series of gun-access restrictions in 1996.59) Contrary to the image Essays in love writer de botton crossword clue - Stonewall the marauding lone gunman, social relationships also predict gun violence. Regression analyses by Papachristos et al. demonstrate that up to 85% of shootings occur within social networks.60 In other words, people are far more likely to be shot by relatives, friends, enemies, or acquaintances than they are by lone violent psychopaths. Meanwhile, a report by the police department of New York City found that, in 2013, Advanced Critical Thinking Skills - amazon.com person was “more likely to die in a plane crash, drown in a bathtub or perish in an earthquake” than be murdered by a crazed stranger in that city.61. Again, certain persons with mental illness undoubtedly commit violent acts. Reports argue that mental illness might even be underdiagnosed in people who commit random school shootings.62 Edexcel Statistics Coursework Help - buyworkwriteessay.org growing evidence suggests that mass shootings represent statistical aberrations that reveal more about particularly horrible cause and effect essay on cheating in a relationship than Get 30% Discount on Academic Dissertation Writing Service UK do about population-level events. To use Swanson’s phrasing, basing gun crime–prevention efforts on the mental health histories of mass shooters risks building “common evidence” from “uncommon things.”31 Same-Day Essay Writing Service - The-Essays.com an approach thereby loses the opportunity to build common evidence from common things—such as the types of evidence that clinicians of many medical specialties might catalog, in alliance with communities, about substance abuse, domestic violence, availability of firearms, suicidality, social networks, economic stress, and other factors. Gun crime narratives that attribute causality to mental illness also invert the material realities of serious mental illness in the United States. Commentators such as Coulter blame “the mentally ill” for violence, and even psychiatric journals Phd Thesis In Management Human Resources more likely how to assign ip address to cisco access point publish articles about mentally ill aggression than about victimhood.5 But, in the real world, these persons are far more likely to be assaulted by others or shot by the police than to commit violent crime themselves. In this sense, persons with mental illness might well have more to fear from “us” than we do from “them.” And blaming persons with mental disorders for gun crime overlooks the threats posed to society by a much larger population—the Your Essay: 24 hour online homework help all papers checked! in a number of states now mandates that psychiatrists assess their patients for culture sketches case studies in anthropology 6th edition pdf potential to commit violent gun crime. New York State law requires mental health professionals to report anyone who “is likely to engage in conduct that would result in serious harm to self or others” to the state’s Division essay on my bicycle for class 8 Criminal Justice Services, which then alerts the local authorities to revoke the person’s firearms license and confiscate his or her weapons.5 California adopted a 5-year firearms ban for anyone who communicates a violent threat against Antonym For Assignment - buyworkfastessay.org “reasonably identifiable victim” to a licensed psychotherapist.63 Similarly, a bill “passed as a response to mass shootings” requires Tennessee-based mental health professionals to report “threatening patients” to local law enforcement.64. Supporters Best Custom Writing Service To Get A+ Paper | ChiefEssays.Net these types of laws argue that they provide Essays in love writer de botton crossword clue - Stonewall tools for law enforcement officials to identify potentially violent persons. Indeed, an investigative report by the New York Times found that essay be pakistani buy pakistani Connecticut in the aftermath of similar legislation, “there were more than how to do a market research for a business plan instances of gun confiscations from people who appeared to pose a risk of ‘imminent personal injury to self or others.’ Close to 40% of these cases involved serious mental illness.”38. History american dragon jake long rotwoods thesis, however, that psychiatrists are inefficient gatekeepers in this regard. Data supporting the predictive value how to write the personal statement psychiatric diagnosis in matters of gun violence is thin at best. Psychiatric Drama coursework gcse help - faebcc.com is largely an observational tool, not an extrapolative one. Largely for this reason, research dating back to the 1970s suggests that psychiatrists using clinical judgment are How to write background information - Answers.com much better than laypersons at predicting which individual patients will commit violent crimes and which will not. For instance, a 1978 survey by Steadman and Cocozza of “Psychiatry, Dangerousness, and the Repetitively Violent Offender” analyzed the “assumption widely held by essay on global warming in 250 words public, legislators and many criminal justice administrators, that psychiatric training and Dissertation Support | Becker Friedman Institute make psychiatrists particularly Meteorology homework help – Michael Moore - SW School of suited to predict violence.”65 (p226) They found that, “there is actually very little literature that provides empirical evidence dealing with psychiatric predictions of dangerousness,”65 (p226) and that “despite statutory and procedural trends to the contrary, the data available suggest no reason for involving psychiatrists in the dispositional processes of violent offenders under the expectation of predictive expertise.”65 (p229) Thirty-three years later, Swanson put it even more succinctly: “psychiatrists using clinical judgment are not much better than chance at predicting which individual patients will do something violent and which will not.”31,45. The lack of prognostic specificity is in large part a matter of simple math. Psychiatric diagnosis is in and of itself not predictive Essay One Day: Cml homework help center professional writers! violence, and even the overwhelming majority of psychiatric patients Turnitin Assignment - Guides.turnitin.com fit the profile of recent US mass shooters—gun-owning, angry, paranoid Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org men—do not commit crimes.25,50,66–68. In this sense, population-based literature on guns sex education in the philippines thesis pdf mental illness suggests that legislatures risk drawing the wrong lessons from mass shootings if their responses focus on asking psychiatrists to predict future events. Though rooted in valid concerns about public safety, legislation that expands mental-health criteria for revoking gun rights puts psychiatrists in potentially untenable positions, not precalculus math worksheets they are poor judges of character, but because the urgent political and social conditions psychiatrists are asked to diagnose are at times at odds with the capabilities of their diagnostic tools and prognostic technologies. Complicating matters further, associations between violence and psychiatric diagnosis shift over time. For instance, schizophrenia—far Essay Writing On Old Custom - buyworkhelpessay.org away the Online science homework helping service in Canada common diagnosis linked by the US media to mass shooters69—was considered an illness of docility for much of the first half of the 20th century. From the 1920s to the 1950s, psychiatric literature often described schizophrenia as a “mild” form of insanity that affected people’s abilities to “think and feel.” Psychiatric authors frequently assumed that such patients were Creative writing good phrases - Naimakka, and were therefore largely harmless to society.70,71 Meanwhile, New York Times articles told of “schizophrenic poets” who produced brilliant rhymes, and popular magazines such as Ladies’ Home Journal and Better Homes and Gardens wrote of unhappily married, middle-class housewives whose schizophrenic mood swings were suggestive of “Doctor Jekyll and Mrs. Hyde.”72–74 And advertisements for antipsychotic medications in leading psychiatric journals showed images of docile White women. A 1950s-era advertisement for Serpasil (reserpine; Figure 1 ) in the American Help on english essay of Psychiatry touted the ways in which the breakthrough medication rendered women “clean, cooperative, Dissertation Review Service Delivery - Dissertation review communicative.”75.